Home / Science / The discovery of phosphine could threaten Venus.

The discovery of phosphine could threaten Venus.



Cloudy tanned photo of the planet Venus in a black sky.
Do the thick clouds of Venus contain a breath of life?
Photo by NASA / JPL-Caltech

On Monday morning, the world learned of an exciting discovery: a puff of phosphine, one of the most hateful substances in the universe, detected in the atmosphere of Venus. On Earth, it is found in some unsightly places, such as sewer plants. But it is also associated with life, particularly with microbes that live in anaerobic (oxygen-poor) environments. Could this report on phosphine on Venus also mean that life exists there?

The answer depends on who you ask. The only thing we now know is that astronomers, as a whole, are incapable of any conspiracy to hide alien life: even though I tuned in to the press conference along with many others around the world, the news had already cleared. since his press embargo and basically known in space circles for two days. During that time, many people were quick to point out that phosphine is found in lifeless places, namely gas giant planets like Jupiter and Saturn. Phosphine, a difficult alliance of one phosphorus atom and three hydrogen atoms, is difficult to produce and easily destroyed; on gas giants it is created deep in the warm, high-pressure lower layers of the atmosphere, then dredged upward by flowing currents. Although Venus is remarkably hot for small rocky planets (its average temperature is 800 degrees Fahrenheit) it is still quite temperate compared to Jupiter (which is estimated to be many tens of thousands of degrees Fahrenheit in its depths!).

But this is exactly what would make it exciting to find phosphine on Venus, if the discovery holds up: on the temperate and terrestrial worlds, phosphine does not form easily and, on Earth at least, is only found in the presence of life. For this reason, astronomers such as Clara Sousa-Silva (who has the enviable Twitter @DrPhosphine) have suggested that phosphine is promising biosignature, a chemical tracer that, if found in the atmosphere of a terrestrial planet, could tell us that life could be lurking there.

Phosphine is an old friend of mine – my first research project in astronomy involved studying phosphine in Jupiter’s atmosphere – but I never imagined hearing about it again, and certainly not as an alleged biosignature. And on Venus, of all places!

Immediately after the announcement, I read the related flotilla of scientific research articles with curiosity and a healthy dose of skepticism: spotting phosphine is difficult at first. Furthermore, it is difficult to know if phosphine is present because of life or because there is only some interesting non-life chemistry that we have not yet understood. If there is phosphine on Venus, then it is definitely exciting, even if it doesn’t end up being a life test. But I’m not even ready to bet that my phosphine apartment is a sign of a microbial Cloud City.

However, once I had the chance to read and discuss the results with some astronomer friends, my mind shifted elsewhere: to worry.

You may not expect me (or anyone else) to care about a place like Venus. Venus is pretty tough. You don’t hear about Venus rovers because there aren’t any – in fact, every mission that landed on Venus was promptly obliterated by its heat and arid, highly acidic environment. Designing a mission to do something other than Venus’ orbit from a safe distance is like deciding to put your smartphone in an oven (for science!), But that hasn’t stopped Venus fans from trying: missions like DAVINCI + (NASA Investigation of Noble gases, Chemistry and Imaging Plus Deep Atmosphere Venus), India Shukrayaan-1, and Russia’s Venera-D all hope to probe Venus’s inhospitable environment over the next decade. In addition to these national missions, private space companies are also competing for action: Peter Beck, CEO of US-based Rocket Lab, describes himself as “madly in love with Venus” and hopes to send a private mission there by. 2023.

So why bother? After all, in much of US science fiction, aliens are the fearsome invaders – they kidnap people and go wild by destroying buildings. Depending on their whims, they can infiltrate the government or just blow it up altogether. Parallel to the earthly stories of invasion and colonization, these fictions tell us to fear aliens, reflecting the fears of white American settlers that we too might someday be colonized. In real-world space exploration, however, we humans are the invaders: as inhabitants of the only planet that we certainly know has life, we go to great lengths to thoroughly clean our spaceship so as not to contaminate the worlds we explore. These regulations, known as planetary protection, safeguard the Earth’s biosphere from potential contamination and protect other worlds from us. National space agencies have strictly adhered to the guidelines on planetary protection and, in general, also private companies that work under contract with national agencies. But private commitments? Not so much: just last year it was discovered that the first completely private mission to the moon, Israel’s Beresheet, splashed a deposit of resistant organisms known as tardigrades when it crashed to the lunar surface.

According to current planetary protection guidelines, the moon is essentially considered a barren wasteland and therefore does not need protection. But if there’s one thing we can agree on (other than astronomers can’t keep secrets), it’s that this potential phosphine detection complicates our ideas of where life beyond Earth might exist. One potential solution to this new chemical mystery about Venus is to immediately invest efforts to get there, leading to a “Venus Rush” in the near future. But just like other moments in history that we have fallen into, human beings have the ability to limit possible futures and to create great damage when we rush.

Planetary protection is not just cleaning a spacecraft, it stems from a philosophy about how we can ethically engage with other worlds. At least in my case, I hope, both for phosphine, and for a future where we have a thorough ethical framework for exploration. Meanwhile, excitement and anxiety will always go hand in hand.

Future time
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}, S.q1 = function
return S.ROTR(17, t) ^ S.ROTR(19, t) ^ t >>> 10;
}, S.Ch = function (t, e, r) {
return t & e ^ ~t & r;
}, S.Maj = function (t, e, r) {
return t & e ^ t & r ^ e & r;
}, S);

function S() {}

e.Sha256 = i;
}
}, [380]);
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l = t.n(i),
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"symbol" : _typeof(e); })(e); } var o = "https://fastlane.rubiconproject.com/a/api/fastlane.json", l = "https://prebid-server.rubiconproject.com/openrtb2/auction", a = "https://eus.rubiconproject.com/usync.html", d = { FASTLANE: { id: "dt.id", keyv: "dt.keyv", pref: "dt.pref" }, PREBID_SERVER: { id: "id", keyv: "keyv" } }, f = { 1: "468x60", 2: "728x90", 5: "120x90", 8: "120x600", 9: "160x600", 10: "300x600", 13: "200x200", 14: "250x250", 15: "300x250", 16: "336x280", 17: "240x400", 19: "300x100", 31: "980x120", 32: "250x360", 33: "180x500", 35: "980x150", 37: "468x400", 38: "930x180", 39: "750x100", 40: "750x200", 41: "750x300", 42: "2x4", 43: "320x50", 44: "300x50", 48: "300x300", 53: "1024x768", 54: "300x1050", 55: "970x90", 57: "970x250", 58: "1000x90", 59: "320x80", 60: "320x150", 61: "1000x1000", 64: "580x500", 65: "640x480", 66: "930x600", 67: "320x480", 68: "1800x1000", 72: "320x320", 73: "320x160", 78: "980x240", 79: "980x300", 80: "980x400", 83: "480x300", 85: "300x120", 90: "548x150", 94: "970x310", 95: "970x100", 96: "970x210", 101: "480x320", 102: "768x1024", 103: "480x280", 105: "250x800", 108: "320x240", 113: "1000x300", 117: "320x100", 125: "800x250", 126: "200x600", 144: "980x600", 145: "980x150", 152: "1000x250", 156: "640x320", 159: "320x250", 179: "250x600", 195: "600x300", 198: "640x360", 199: "640x200", 213: "1030x590", 214: "980x360", 221: "1x1", 229: "320x180", 230: "2000x1400", 232: "580x400", 234: "6x6", 251: "2x2", 256: "480x820", 257: "400x600", 258: "500x200", 259: "998x200", 264: "970x1000", 265: "1920x1080", 274: "1800x200", 278: "320x500", 282: "320x400", 288: "640x380" }; g._each(f, function (e, r) { return f[e] = r; }); var h = { code: "rubicon", gvlid: 52, supportedMediaTypes: [u.b, u.d], isBidRequestValid: function isBidRequestValid(e) { if ("object" !== x(e.params)) return !1; for (var r = 0, t = ["accountId"https://news.google.com/,"siteId"https://news.google.com/,"zoneId"]; r < t.length; r++) { if (e.params[t[t[t[t[r]]= parseInt(e.params[t[t[t[t[r]]), isNaN(e.params[t[t[t[t[r]])) return g.logError("Rubicon: wrong format of accountId or siteId or zoneId."), !1; } var i = m(e, !0); return !!i && ("video" !== i || k(e)); }, buildRequests: function buildRequests(e, u) { var n, r = e.filter(function (e) { return "video" === m(e); }).map(function (e) { e.startTime = new Date().getTime(); var r, t, i = { id: e.transactionId, test: b.b.getConfig("debug") ? 1 : 0, cur: ["USD"], source: { tid: e.transactionId }, tmax: b.b.getConfig("TTL") || 1e3, imp: [{ exp: 300, id: e.adUnitCode, secure: 1, ext: p({}, e.bidder, e.params), video: g.deepAccess(e, "mediaTypes.video") || {} }], ext: { prebid: { cache: { vastxml: { returnCreative: !1 } }, targeting: { includewinners: !0, includebidderkeys: !1, pricegranularity: j(b.b) }, bidders: { rubicon: { integration: b.b.getConfig("rubicon.int_type") || "pbjs" } } } } }; "rubicon" !== e.bidder && (i.ext.prebid.aliases = p({}, e.bidder, "rubicon")), t = "function" != typeof e.getFloor || b.b.getConfig("rubicon.disableFloors") ? parseFloat(g.deepAccess(e, "params.floor")) : "object" !== x(r = e.getFloor({ currency: "USD", mediaType: "video", size: A(e, "video") })) || "USD" !== r.currency || isNaN(parseInt(r.floor)) ? void 0 : parseFloat(r.floor), isNaN if (!r) return; "object" === x(b.b.getConfig("app")) ? r.app = b.b.getConfig("app") : r.site = { page: I(t, e) }; "object" === x(b.b.getConfig("device")) && (r.device = b.b.getConfig("device")); t.params.video.language && ["site"https://news.google.com/,"device"].forEach(function (e) { r[e] && (r[e].content = y({ language: t.params.video.language }, r[e].content)); }); }(i, e, u), function (e, r) { "object" === x(e.imp[0].video) && void 0 === e.imp[0].video.skip && (e.imp[0].video.skip = r.params.video.skip); "object" === x(e.imp[0].video) && void 0 === e.imp[0].video.skipafter && (e.imp[0].video.skipafter = r.params.video.skipdelay); "object" === x(e.imp[0].video) && void 0 === e.imp[0].video.pos && ("atf" === r.params.position ? e.imp[0].video.pos = 1 : "btf" === r.params.position && (e.imp[0].video.pos = 3)); var t = A(r, "video"); e.imp[0].video.w = t[0], e.imp[0].video.h = t[1]; }(i, e); var n, o = _(e, "PREBID_SERVER"); o && g.deepSetValue(i, "user.ext.digitrust", o), u.gdprConsent && ("boolean" == typeof u.gdprConsent.gdprApplies && (n = u.gdprConsent.gdprApplies ? 1 : 0), g.deepSetValue(i, "regs.ext.gdpr", n), g.deepSetValue(i, "user.ext.consent", u.gdprConsent.consentString)), u.uspConsent && g.deepSetValue(i, "regs.ext.us_privacy", u.uspConsent), e.userId && "object" === x(e.userId) && (e.userId.tdid || e.userId.pubcid || e.userId.lipb || e.userId.idl_env) && (g.deepSetValue(i, "user.ext.eids", []), e.userId.tdid && i.user.ext.eids.push({ source: "adserver.org", uids: [{ id: e.userId.tdid, ext: { rtiPartner: "TDID" } }] }), e.userId.pubcid && i.user.ext.eids.push({ source: "pubcommon", uids: [{ id: e.userId.pubcid }] }), e.userId.lipb && e.userId.lipb.lipbid && (i.user.ext.eids.push({ source: "liveintent.com", uids: [{ id: e.userId.lipb.lipbid }] }), i.user.ext.tpid = { source: "liveintent.com", uid: e.userId.lipb.lipbid }, Array.isArray(e.userId.lipb.segments) && e.userId.lipb.segments.length && g.deepSetValue(i, "rp.target.LIseg", e.userId.lipb.segments)), e.userId.idl_env && i.user.ext.eids.push({ source: "liveramp.com", uids: [{ id: e.userId.idl_env }] })), !0 === b.b.getConfig("coppa") && g.deepSetValue(i, "regs.coppa", 1), e.schain && T(e.schain) && g.deepSetValue(i, "source.ext.schain", e.schain); var a, s = y({}, e.params.inventory, b.b.getConfig("fpd.context")), d = y({}, e.params.visitor, b.b.getConfig("fpd.user")); g.isEmpty(s) && g.isEmpty(d) || (a = { bidders: [u.bidderCode], config: { fpd: {} } }, g.isEmpty(s) || (a.config.fpd.site = s), g.isEmpty(d) || (a.config.fpd.user = d), g.deepSetValue(i, "ext.prebid.bidderconfig.0", a)); var c = g.deepAccess(e, "fpd.context.pbAdSlot"); return "string" == typeof c && c && g.deepSetValue(i.imp[0].ext, "context.data.adslot", c), e.storedAuctionResponse && g.deepSetValue(i.imp[0], "ext.prebid.storedauctionresponse.id", e.storedAuctionResponse.toString()), g.deepSetValue(i.imp[0], "ext.prebid.auctiontimestamp", u.auctionStart), { method: "POST", url: l, data: i, bidRequest: e }; }); return !0 !== b.b.getConfig("rubicon.singleRequest") ? r.concat(e.filter(function (e) { return "banner" === m(e); }).map(function (e) { var i = h.createSlotParams(e, u); return { method: "GET", url: o, data: h.getOrderedParams(i).reduce(function (e, r) { var t = i[r]; return g.isStr }, "") + "slots=1&rand=".concat(Math.random()), bidRequest: e }; })) : (n = e.filter(function (e) { return "banner" === m(e); }).reduce(function (e, r) { return (e[r.params.siteId] = e[r.params.siteId] || []).push(r), e; }, {}), r.concat(Object.keys(n).reduce(function (r, e) { var t, i; return t = n[e], i = 10, t.map(function (e, r) { return r % i == 0 ? t.slice(r, r + i) : null; }).filter(function (e) { return e; }).forEach(function (e) { var i = h.combineSlotUrlParams(e.map(function (e) { return h.createSlotParams(e, u); })); r.push({ method: "GET", url: o, data: h.getOrderedParams(i).reduce(function (e, r) { var t = i[r]; return g.isStr }, "") + "slots=".concat(e.length, "&rand=").concat(Math.random()), bidRequest: e }); }), r; }, []))); }, getOrderedParams: function getOrderedParams(e) { var r = /^tg_v/, t = /^tg_i/, i = ["account_id"https://news.google.com/,"site_id"https://news.google.com/,"zone_id"https://news.google.com/,"size_id"https://news.google.com/,"alt_size_ids"https://news.google.com/,"p_pos"https://news.google.com/,"gdpr"https://news.google.com/,"gdpr_consent"https://news.google.com/,"us_privacy"https://news.google.com/,"rp_schain"https://news.google.com/,"tpid_tdid"https://news.google.com/,"tpid_liveintent.com"https://news.google.com/,"tg_v.LIseg"https://news.google.com/,"dt.id"https://news.google.com/,"dt.keyv"https://news.google.com/,"dt.pref"https://news.google.com/,"rf"https://news.google.com/,"p_geo.latitude"https://news.google.com/,"p_geo.longitude"https://news.google.com/,"kw"].concat(Object.keys(e).filter(function (e) { return r.test(e); })).concat(Object.keys(e).filter(function (e) { return t.test(e); })).concat(["tk_flint"https://news.google.com/,"x_source.tid"https://news.google.com/,"x_source.pchain"https://news.google.com/,"p_screen_res"https://news.google.com/,"rp_floor"https://news.google.com/,"rp_secure"https://news.google.com/,"tk_user_key"]); return i.concat(Object.keys(e).filter(function (e) { return -1 === i.indexOf(e); })); }, combineSlotUrlParams: function combineSlotUrlParams(n) { if (1 === n.length) return n[0]; var i = n.reduce(function (r, t, i) { return Object.keys r.hasOwnProperty(e) || (r[e] = new Array(n.length)), r[e].splice(i, 1, t[e]); }), r; }, {}), o = new RegExp("^([^;]*)(;\1)+$"); return Object.keys(i).forEach(function (e) { var r = i[e].join(";"), t = r.match(o); I[e] = t ? t[1] : r; }), i; }, createSlotParams: function createSlotParams(e, r) { e.startTime = new Date().getTime(); var t, i = e.params, n = A(e, "banner"), o = v(i.latLong || [], 2), a = o[0], s = o[1], d = b.b.getConfig("rubicon.int_type"), c = { account_id: i.accountId, site_id: i.siteId, zone_id: i.zoneId, size_id: n[0], alt_size_ids: n.slice(1).join(",") || void 0, rp_floor: .01 < (i.floor = parseFloat(i.floor)) ? i.floor : .01, rp_secure: "1", tk_flint: "".concat(d || "pbjs_lite"https://news.google.com/,"_v3.23.0"), "x_source.tid": e.transactionId, "x_source.pchain": i.pchain, p_screen_res: [window.screen.width, window.screen.height].join("x"), tk_user_key: i.userId, "p_geo.latitude": isNaN(parseFloat(a)) ? void 0 : parseFloat(a).toFixed(4), "p_geo.longitude": isNaN(parseFloat(s)) ? void 0 : parseFloat(s).toFixed(4), "tg_fl.eid": e.code, rf: I(e, r) }; "function" != typeof e.getFloor || b.b.getConfig("rubicon.disableFloors") || (t = e.getFloor({ currency: "USD", mediaType: "banner", size: "*" }), c.rp_hard_floor = "object" !== x var u = y({}, i.visitor, b.b.getConfig("fpd.user")); Object.keys(u).forEach(function (e) { null != u[e] && "keywords" !== e && (c["tg_v.".concat(e)] = "object" !== x(u[e]) || Array.isArray(u[e]) ? u[e].toString() : JSON.stringify(u[e])); }); var p = y({}, i.inventory, b.b.getConfig("fpd.context")); Object.keys(p).forEach(function (e) { null != p[e] && "keywords" !== e && (c["tg_i.".concat(e)] = "object" !== x(p[e]) || Array.isArray(p[e]) ? p[e].toString() : JSON.stringify(p[e])); }); var l = (i.keywords || []).concat(g.deepAccess(b.b.getConfig("fpd.user"), "keywords") || [], g.deepAccess(b.b.getConfig("fpd.context"), "keywords") || []); c.kw = Array.isArray(l) && l.length ? l.join(",") : ""; var f = g.deepAccess(e, "fpd.context.pbAdSlot"); "string" == typeof f && f && (c["tg_i.dfp_ad_unit_code"] = f.replace(/^/+/, "")); var m = _(e, "FASTLANE"); return y(c, m), !0 === b.b.getConfig("coppa") && (c.coppa = 1), e.schain && T(e.schain) && (c.rp_schain = h.serializeSupplyChain(e.schain)), c; }, serializeSupplyChain: function serializeSupplyChain(e) { if (!T(e)) return ""; var r = e.ver, t = e.complete, i = e.nodes; return "".concat(r, ",").concat(t, "!").concat(h.serializeSupplyChainNodes(i)); }, serializeSupplyChainNodes: function serializeSupplyChainNodes(e) { var t = ["asi"https://news.google.com/,"sid"https://news.google.com/,"hp"https://news.google.com/,"rid"https://news.google.com/,"name"https://news.google.com/,"domain"]; return e.map(function (r) { return t.map(function (e) { return encodeURIComponent(r[e] || ""); }).join(","); }).join("!"); }, interpretResponse: function interpretResponse(d, e) { var c = e.bidRequest; if (!(d = d.body) || "object" !== x(d)) return []; if (d.seatbid) { var r = g.deepAccess(d, "ext.errors.rubicon"); Array.isArray(r) && 0 < r.length && g.logWarn("Rubicon: Error in video response"); var o = []; return d.seatbid.forEach(function (n) { (n.bid || []).forEach(function (e) { var r = { requestId: c.bidId, currency: d.cur || "USD", creativeId: e.crid, cpm: e.price || 0, bidderCode: n.seat, ttl: 300, netRevenue: !1 !== b.b.getConfig("rubicon.netRevenue"), width: e.w || g.deepAccess(c, "mediaTypes.video.w") || g.deepAccess(c, "params.video.playerWidth"), height: e.h || g.deepAccess(c, "mediaTypes.video.h") || g.deepAccess(c, "params.video.playerHeight") }; e.id && (r.seatBidId = e.id), e.dealid && (r.dealId = e.dealid); var t, i = g.deepAccess(d, "ext.responsetimemillis.rubicon"); c && i && (c.serverResponseTimeMs = i), g.deepAccess(e, "ext.prebid.type") === u.d ? (r.mediaType = u.d, (t = g.deepAccess(e, "ext.prebid.targeting")) && "object" === x }); }), o; } var t = d.ads; return "object" !== x(c) || Array.isArray(c) || "video" !== m(c) || "object" !== x if ("ok" !== r.status) return e; var i, n, o, a, s = Array.isArray(c) ? c return s && "object" === x(s) ? (i = { requestId: s.bidId, currency: "USD", creativeId: r.creative_id || "".concat(r.network || ""https://news.google.com/,"-").concat(r.advertiser || ""), cpm: r.cpm || 0, dealId: r.deal, ttl: 300, netRevenue: !1 !== b.b.getConfig("rubicon.netRevenue"), rubicon: { advertiserId: r.advertiser, networkId: r.network }, meta: { advertiserId: r.advertiser, networkId: r.network } }, r.creative_type && (i.mediaType = r.creative_type), r.creative_type === u.d ? (i.width = s.params.video.playerWidth, i.height = s.params.video.playerHeight, i.vastUrl = r.creative_depot_url, i.impression_id = r.impression_id, i.videoCacheKey = r.impression_id) : (i.ad = (o = r.script, a = r.impression_id, "nnnx3c!-- Rubicon Project Ad Tag --x3en

nn

nn")), n = v(f[r.size_id].split("x").map(function (e) {
return Number(e);
}), 2), i.width = n[0], i.height = n[1]), i.rubiconTargeting = (Array.isArray(r.targeting) ? r.targeting : []).reduce(function (e, r) {
return e[r.key] = r.values[0], e;
}, {
rpfl_elemid: s.adUnitCode
}), e.push(i)) : g.logError("Rubicon: bidRequest undefined at index position:".concat
}, []).sort(function (e, r) {
return (r.cpm || 0) - (e.cpm || 0);
});
},
getUserSyncs: function getUserSyncs(e, r, t, i) {
if (!R && e.iframeEnabled) {
var n = "";
return t && "string" == typeof t.consentString && ("boolean" == typeof t.gdprApplies ? n += "?gdpr=".concat(Number(t.gdprApplies), "&gdpr_consent=").concat(t.consentString) : n += "?gdpr_consent=".concat(t.consentString)), i && (n += "".concat(n ? "&" : "?"https://news.google.com/,"us_privacy=").concat(encodeURIComponent(i))), R = !0, {
type: "iframe",
url: a + n
};
}
},
transformBidParams: function transformBidParams(e) {
return g.convertTypes({
accountId: "number",
siteId: "number",
zoneId: "number"
}, e);
}
};

function _(e, r) {
var t,
i = 0 < arguments.length && void 0 !== e ? e : {}, n = 1 < arguments.length ? r : void 0; if (!n || !d[n]) return null; var o = d[n]; var a = function () { var e = g.deepAccess(i, "userId.digitrustid.data"); if (e) return e; var r = window.DigiTrust && (b.b.getConfig("digiTrustId") || window.DigiTrust.getUser({ member: "T9QSFKPDN9" })); return r && r.success && r.identity || null; }(); if (!a || a.privacy && a.privacy.optout) return null; var s = (p(t = {}, o.id, a.id), p(t, o.keyv, a.keyv), t); return o.pref && (s[o.pref] = 0), s; } function I(e, r) { var t = b.b.getConfig("pageUrl"), t = e.params.referrer ? e.params.referrer : t || r.refererInfo.referer; return e.params.secure ? t.replace(/^http:/i, "https:") : t; } function A(e, r) { var t = e.params; if ("video" === r) { var i = []; return t.video && t.video.playerWidth && t.video.playerHeight ? i = [t.video.playerWidth, t.video.playerHeight] : Array.isArray(g.deepAccess(e, "mediaTypes.video.playerSize")) && 1 === e.mediaTypes.video.playerSize.length ? i = e.mediaTypes.video.playerSize[0] : Array.isArray(e.sizes) && 0 < e.sizes.length && Array.isArray(e.sizes[0]) && 1 < e.sizes[0].length && (i = e.sizes[0]), i; } var n = []; return Array.isArray(t.sizes) ? n = t.sizes : void 0 !== g.deepAccess(e, "mediaTypes.banner.sizes") ? n = s(e.mediaTypes.banner.sizes) : Array.isArray(e.sizes) && 0 < e.sizes.length ? n = s(e.sizes) : g.logWarn("Rubicon: no sizes are setup or found"), S(n); } function s(e) { return g.parseSizesInput(e).reduce(function (e, r) { var t = parseInt(f[r], 10); return t && e.push }, []); } function c(e) { return "object" === x(g.deepAccess(e, "params.video")) && void 0 !== g.deepAccess(e, "mediaTypes.".concat(u.d)); } function m(e, r) { var t = 1 < arguments.length && void 0 !== r && r; return c(e) ? -1 === ["outstream"https://news.google.com/,"instream"].indexOf(g.deepAccess(e, "mediaTypes.".concat(u.d, ".context"))) ? void (t && g.logError("Rubicon: mediaTypes.video.context must be outstream or instream")) : A(e, "video").length < 2 ? void (t && g.logError("Rubicon: could not determine the playerSize of the video")) : (t && g.logMessage("Rubicon: making video request for adUnit", e.adUnitCode), "video") : 0 === A(e, "banner").length ? void (t && g.logError("Rubicon: could not determine the sizes for banner request")) : (t && g.logMessage("Rubicon: making banner request for adUnit", e.adUnitCode), "banner"); } function S(e) { var n = [15, 2, 9]; return e.sort(function (e, r) { var t = n.indexOf(e), i = n.indexOf(r); return -1 < t || -1 < i ? -1 === t ? 1 : -1 === i ? -1 : t - i : e - r; }); } function C(e) { var r = parseInt(g.deepAccess(e, "params.video.size_id")); return isNaN(r) ? "outstream" === g.deepAccess(e, "mediaTypes.".concat(u.d, ".context")) ? 203 : 201 : r; } function j(e) { return { ranges: { low: [{ max: 5, increment: .5 }], medium: [{ max: 20, increment: .1 }], high: [{ max: 20, increment: .01 }], auto: [{ max: 5, increment: .05 }, { min: 5, max: 10, increment: .1 }, { min: 10, max: 20, increment: .5 }], dense: [{ max: 3, increment: .01 }, { min: 3, max: 8, increment: .05 }, { min: 8, max: 20, increment: .5 }], custom: e.getConfig("customPriceBucket") && e.getConfig("customPriceBucket").buckets }[e.getConfig("priceGranularity")] }; } function k(r) { var t = !0, e = Object.prototype.toString.call([]), i = Object.prototype.toString.call(0), n = { mimes: e, protocols: e, maxduration: i, linearity: i, api: e }; return Object.keys(n).forEach(function (e) { Object.prototype.toString.call(g.deepAccess(r, "mediaTypes.video." + e)) !== n[e] && (t = !1, g.logError("Rubicon: mediaTypes.video." + e + " is required and must be of type: " + n[e])); }), t; } function T(e) { var r = !1, t = ["asi"https://news.google.com/,"sid"https://news.google.com/,"hp"]; return e.nodes && ((r = e.nodes.reduce(function (e, r) { return e ? t.every(function (e) { return r[e]; }) : e; }, !0)) || g.logError("Rubicon: required schain params missing")), r; } function w(e, r) { return "rp_schain" === e ? "rp_schain=".concat(r) : "".concat(e, "=").concat(encodeURIComponent(r)); } var R = !1; Object(i.registerBidder)(h); } }, [677]); pbjsChunk([93], { 719: function _(e, t, r) { e.exports = r(720); }, 720: function _(e, t, r) { "use strict"; Object.defineProperty(t, "__esModule", { value: !0 }), r.d(t, "spec", function () { return o; }), r.d(t, "_isInbounds", function () { return a; }), t._getPlatform = v; var n = r(1), y = r(0), i = r(2), c = r(3), g = r(10), d = r(44); function h(e, t) { return function (e) { if (Array.isArray(e)) return e; }(e) || function (e, t) { if ("undefined" == typeof Symbol || !(Symbol.iterator in Object(e))) return; var r = [], n = !0, i = !1, s = void 0; try { for (var o, a = e[Symbol.iterator](); !(n = (o = a.next()).done) && (r.push(o.value), !t || r.length !== t); n = !0) { ; } } catch (e) { i = !0, s = e; } finally { try { n || null == a.return || a.return(); } finally { if (i) throw s; } } return r; }(e, t) || function (e, t) { if (!e) return; if ("string" == typeof e) return s(e, t); var r = Object.prototype.toString.call(e).slice(8, -1); "Object" === r && e.constructor && (r = e.constructor.name); if ("Map" === r || "Set" === r) return Array.from(e); if ("Arguments" === r || /^(?:Ui|I)nt(?:8|16|32)(?:Clamped)?Array$/.test(r)) return s(e, t); }(e, t) || function () { throw new TypeError("Invalid attempt to destructure non-iterable instance.nIn order to be iterable, non-array objects must have a [Symbol.iterator]() method."); }(); } function s(e, t) { (null == t || t > e.length) && (t = e.length);

for (var r = 0, n = new Array
n[r] = e[r];
}

return n;
}

function u() {
return (u = Object.assign || function (e) {
for (var t = 1; t < arguments.length; t++) { var r = arguments for (var n in r) { Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(r, n) && (e[n] = r[n]); } } return e; }).apply(this, arguments); } function p(e, t, r) { return t in e ? Object.defineProperty(e, t, { value: r, enumerable: !0, configurable: !0, writable: !0 }) : e } var b = "sonobi", l = Object(y.generateUUID)(), o = { code: b, supportedMediaTypes: [i.b, i.d], isBidRequestValid: function isBidRequestValid(e) { if (!e.params) return !1; if (!e.params.ad_unit && !e.params.placement_id) return !1; if (!Object(y.deepAccess)(e, "mediaTypes.banner") && !Object(y.deepAccess)(e, "mediaTypes.video")) return !1; if (Object(y.deepAccess)(e, "mediaTypes.banner")) { if (!Object(y.deepAccess)(e, "mediaTypes.banner.sizes") && !e.params.sizes) return !1; } else if (Object(y.deepAccess)(e, "mediaTypes.video")) { if ("outstream" === Object(y.deepAccess)(e, "mediaTypes.video.context") && !e.params.sizes) return !1; if ("instream" === Object(y.deepAccess)(e, "mediaTypes.video.context") && !Object(y.deepAccess)(e, "mediaTypes.video.playerSize")) return !1; } return !0; }, buildRequests: function buildRequests(e, t) { var r = e.map(function (e) { var t = function (e) { if (e.params.ad_unit) return e.params.ad_unit; return e.params.placement_id; }(e); return /^[/]?[d]+[[[[[/].+[/]?]?$/.test }), n = {}; r.forEach(function (e) { u(n, e); }); var i = { key_maker: JSON.stringify(n), ref: t.refererInfo.referer, s: Object(y.generateUUID)(), pv: l, vp: v(), lib_name: "prebid", lib_v: "3.23.0", us: 0 }; c.b.getConfig("userSync") && c.b.getConfig("userSync").syncsPerBidder && (i.us = c.b.getConfig("userSync").syncsPerBidder), d.a.canBidderRegisterSync("iframe", b) ? i.ius = 1 : i.ius = 0, Object(y.deepAccess)(e[0], "params.hfa") && (i.hfa = Object(y.deepAccess)(e[0], "params.hfa")), e[0].params.referrer && (i.ref = e[0].params.referrer), t && t.gdprConsent && (i.gdpr = t.gdprConsent.gdprApplies ? "true" : "false", t.gdprConsent.consentString && (i.consent_string = t.gdprConsent.consentString)); var s = function var e = function () { var e = window.DigiTrust && (c.b.getConfig("digiTrustId") || window.DigiTrust.getUser({ member: t })); return e && e.success && e.identity || null; }(); if (!e || e.privacy && e.privacy.optout) return null; return e; }("fhnS5drwmH"); s && (i.digid = s.id, i.digkeyv = s.keyv), e[0].schain && (i.schain = JSON.stringify(e[0].schain)), Object(y.deepAccess)(e[0], "userId") && 0 < Object.keys(e[0].userId).length && (i.userid = JSON.stringify(e[0].userId)); var o = e[0].params.keywords; if (o && (i.kw = o), t && t.uspConsent && (i.us_privacy = t.uspConsent), Object(y.isEmpty)(n)) return null; var a = "https://apex.go.sonobi.com/trinity.json"; return Object(y.deepAccess)(e[0], "params.bid_request_url") && (a = Object(y.deepAccess)(e[0], "params.bid_request_url")), { method: "GET", url: a, withCredentials: !0, data: i, bidderRequests: e }; }, interpretResponse: function interpretResponse(e, l) { var f = e.body, m = [], v = l.data.ref; return 0 === Object.keys(f.slots).length || Object.keys(f.slots).forEach(function (e) { var t = f.slots[e], r = e.split("|").slice(-1)[0], n = function (e, t) { for (var r = 0; r < e.length; r++) { if (e[r].bidId === t) return e[r]; } }(l.bidderRequests, r), i = null; "video" === t.sbi_ct && (i = "video"https://news.google.com/,"outstream" === Object(y.deepAccess)(n, "mediaTypes.video.context") && (i = "outstream")); var s, o, a, c, d, u, p, b = j(i, v); t.sbi_aid && t.sbi_mouse && t.sbi_size && (a = void 0 === (o = (s = h(t.sbi_size.split("x"), 2))[0]) ? 1 : o, d = void 0 === (c = s[1]) ? 1 : c, u = { requestId: r, cpm: Number(t.sbi_mouse), width: Number(a), height: Number(d), ad: b(f.sbi_dc, t.sbi_aid), ttl: 500, creativeId: t.sbi_crid || t.sbi_aid, aid: t.sbi_aid, netRevenue: !0, currency: "USD" }, t.sbi_dozer && (u.dealId = t.sbi_dozer), "video" === i ? (u.mediaType = "video", u.vastUrl = b(f.sbi_dc, t.sbi_aid), delete u.ad, delete u.width, delete u.height) : "outstream" === i && n && (u.mediaType = "video", u.vastUrl = b(f.sbi_dc, t.sbi_aid), u.renderer = function (e, t) { var r = 2 < arguments.length && void 0 !== arguments[2] ? arguments[2] : {}, n = g.a.install({ id: t.aid, url: "https://mtrx.go.sonobi.com/sbi_outstream_renderer.js", config: r, loaded: !1, adUnitCode: e }); try { n.setRender(O); } catch (e) { Object(y.logWarn)("Prebid Error calling setRender on renderer", e); } return n.setEventHandlers({ impression: function impression() { return Object(y.logMessage)("Sonobi outstream video impression event"); }, loaded: function loaded() { return Object(y.logMessage)("Sonobi outstream video loaded event"); }, ended: function ended() { Object(y.logMessage)("Sonobi outstream renderer video event"); } }), n; }(n.adUnitCode, u, Object(y.deepAccess)(n, "renderer.options")), p = Object(y.deepAccess)(n, "params.sizes"), Array.isArray(p) && Array.isArray(p[0]) && (p = p[0]), p && (u.width = p[0], u.height = p[1])), m.push(u)); }), m; }, getUserSyncs: function getUserSyncs(e, t) { var r = []; try { e.pixelEnabled && t[0].body.sbi_px.forEach(function (e) { r.push({ type: e.type, url: e.url }); }); } catch (e) {} return r; } }; function f(e) { return Object(y.deepAccess)(e, "mediaTypes.video") ? "" : e.params.sizes ? Object(y.parseSizesInput)(e.params.sizes).join(",") : Object(y.deepAccess)(e, "mediaTypes.banner.sizes") ? Object(y.parseSizesInput)(Object(y.deepAccess)(e, "mediaTypes.banner.sizes")).join(",") : e.sizes ? Object(y.parseSizesInput)(e.sizes).join(",") : void 0; } function m(e) { return e.params.floor ? "|f=".concat(e.params.floor) : ""; } var j = function j(i, s) { return function (e, t) { return "video" === i || "outstream" === i ? (r = t, n = s, "https://".concat(e, "apex.go.sonobi.com/vast.xml?vid=").concat(r, "&ref=").concat(encodeURIComponent(n))) : '‘;
var r, n;
};
};

var a = function a(e) {
var r = 0 < arguments.length && void 0 !== e ? e : window; return function () { var e = 0 < arguments.length && void 0 !== arguments[0] ? arguments[0] : 0, t = 1 < arguments.length && void 0 !== arguments[1] ? arguments[1] : Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER; return r.innerWidth >= e && r.innerWidth < t; }; }; function v() { var e = 0 < arguments.length && void 0 !== arguments[0] ? arguments[0] : window, t = a(e), r = 992, n = 768; return t(0, 768) ? "mobile" : t(n, r) ? "tablet" : "desktop"; } function O(i) { i.renderer.push(function () { var e = h(i.getSize().split("x"), 2), t = e[0], r = e[1], n = new window.SbiOutstreamRenderer(); n.init({ vastUrl: i.vastUrl, height: r, width: t }), n.setRootElement(i.adUnitCode); }); } Object(n.registerBidder)(o); } }, [719]); pbjsChunk([85], { 741: function _(e, r, t) { e.exports = t(742); }, 742: function _(e, r, t) { "use strict"; Object.defineProperty(r, "__esModule", { value: !0 }), t.d(r, "spec", function () { return n; }); var a = t(1), d = t(0), p = 12, o = 11, c = 0, u = 22, n = { code: "teads", supportedMediaTypes: ["video"https://news.google.com/,"banner"], isBidRequestValid: function isBidRequestValid(e) { var r, t, a = !1; return void 0 !== e.params && (r = i(d.getValue(e.params, "placementId")), t = i(d.getValue(e.params, "pageId")), a = r && t), a || d.logError("Teads placementId and pageId parameters are required. Bid aborted."), a; }, buildRequests: function buildRequests(e, r) { var t = e.map(I), a = { referrer: function (e) { var r = ""; e && e.refererInfo && e.refererInfo.referer && (r = e.refererInfo.referer); return r; }(r), data: t, deviceWidth: screen.width, hb_version: "3.23.0" }; is[0].schain && (a.schain = e[0].schain); var n, d, i, s = r.gdprConsent; return r && s && (n = "boolean" == typeof s.gdprApplies, d = "string" == typeof s.consentString, i = n ? function (e, r, t) { var a = p; e ? function (e, r) { return e && 1 === r ? e.hasGlobalScope || e.hasGlobalConsent : !(!e || 2 !== r) && !e.isServiceSpecific; }(r, t) && (a = o) : a = c; return a; }(s.gdprApplies, s.vendorData, s.apiVersion) : u, a.gdpr_iab = { consent: d ? s.consentString : "", status: i, apiVersion: s.apiVersion }), r && r.uspConsent && (a.us_privacy = r.uspConsent), { method: "POST", url: "https://a.teads.tv/hb/bid-request", data: JSON.stringify(a) }; }, interpretResponse: function interpretResponse(e) { var t = []; return (e = e.body).responses && e.responses.forEach(function (e) { var r = { cpm: e.cpm, width: e.width, height: e.height, currency: e.currency, netRevenue: !0, ttl: e.ttl, ad: e.ad, requestId: e.bidId, creativeId: e.creativeId, placementId: e.placementId }; e.dealId && (r.dealId = e.dealId), t.push(r); }), t; } }; function I(e) { var r, t = {}, a = d.getValue(e.params, "placementId"), n = d.getValue(e.params, "pageId"); return t.sizes = (r = e, d.parseSizesInput(function (e) { var r = d.deepAccess(e, "mediaTypes.video.playerSize"), t = d.deepAccess(e, "mediaTypes.video.sizes"), a = d.deepAccess(e, "mediaTypes.banner.sizes"); return d.isArray(a) || d.isArray(r) || d.isArray return d.isArray(e) && (d.isArray(e[0]) ? e.forEach(function (e) { r.push(e); }) : r.push(e)), r; }, []) : e.sizes; }(r))), t.bidId = d.getBidIdParameter("bidId", e), t.bidderRequestId = d.getBidIdParameter("bidderRequestId", e), t.placementId = parseInt(a, 10), t.pageId = parseInt(n, 10), t.adUnitCode = d.getBidIdParameter("adUnitCode", e), t.auctionId = d.getBidIdParameter("auctionId", e), t.transactionId = d.getBidIdParameter("transactionId", e), t; } function i(e) { return 0 < parseInt(e); } Object(a.registerBidder)(n); } }, [741]); pbjsChunk([76], { 761: function _(r, e, t) { r.exports = t(762); }, 762: function _(r, e, t) { "use strict"; Object.defineProperty(e, "__esModule", { value: !0 }), t.d(e, "tripleliftAdapterSpec", function () { return s; }); var n = t(2), i = t(1), o = t(0), u = t(3); function p(r) { return function (r) { if (Array.isArray(r)) return d(r); }(r) || function (r) { if ("undefined" != typeof Symbol && Symbol.iterator in Object(r)) return Array.from(r); }(r) || function (r, e) { if (!r) return; if ("string" == typeof r) return d(r, e); var t = Object.prototype.toString.call(r).slice(8, -1); "Object" === t && r.constructor && (t = r.constructor.name); if ("Map" === t || "Set" === t) return Array.from(r); if ("Arguments" === t || /^(?:Ui|I)nt(?:8|16|32)(?:Clamped)?Array$/.test }(r) || function () { throw new TypeError("Invalid attempt to spread non-iterable instance.nIn order to be iterable, non-array objects must have a [Symbol.iterator]() method."); }(); } function d(r, e) { (null == e || e > r.length) && (e = r.length);

for (var t = 0, n = new Array(e); t < e; t++) { n } return n; } var a = !0, c = null, s = { code: "triplelift", supportedMediaTypes: [n.b], isBidRequestValid: function isBidRequestValid(r) { return void 0 !== r.params.inventoryCode; }, buildRequests: function buildRequests(r, e) { var t, n = "https://tlx.3lift.com/header/auction?", i = function (r) { var e = {}, t = r[0].schain; e.imp = r.map(function (r, e) { return { id: e, tagid: r.params.inventoryCode, floor: r.params.floor, banner: { format: r.sizes.filter(l).map(function (r) { return { w: r[0], h: r[1] }; }) } }; }); var n = [].concat(p(function (r) { return f(r, "tdid"https://news.google.com/,"adserver.org"https://news.google.com/,"TDID"); }(r)), p(function (r) { return f(r, "idl_env"https://news.google.com/,"liveramp.com"https://news.google.com/,"idl"); }(r)), p(function (r) { return f(r, "criteoId"https://news.google.com/,"criteo.com"https://news.google.com/,"criteoId"); }(r))); 0 < n.length && (e.user = { ext: { eids: n } }); t && (e.ext = { schain: t }); return e; }(r); return n = o.tryAppendQueryString(n, "lib"https://news.google.com/,"prebid"), n = o.tryAppendQueryString(n, "v"https://news.google.com/,"3.23.0"), e && e.refererInfo && (t = e.refererInfo.referer, n = o.tryAppendQueryString(n, "referrer", t)), e && e.timeout && (n = o.tryAppendQueryString(n, "tmax", e.timeout)), e && e.gdprConsent && (void 0 !== e.gdprConsent.gdprApplies && (a = e.gdprConsent.gdprApplies, n = o.tryAppendQueryString(n, "gdpr", a.toString())), void 0 !== e.gdprConsent.consentString && (c = e.gdprConsent.consentString, n = o.tryAppendQueryString(n, "cmp_cs", c))), e && e.uspConsent && (n = o.tryAppendQueryString(n, "us_privacy", e.uspConsent)), !0 === u.b.getConfig("coppa") && (n = o.tryAppendQueryString(n, "coppa", !0)), n.lastIndexOf("&") === n.length - 1 && (n = n.substring(0, n.length - 1)), o.logMessage("tlCall request built: " + n), { method: "POST", url: n, data: i, bidderRequest: e }; }, interpretResponse: function interpretResponse(r, e) { var t = e.bidderRequest; return (r.body.bids || []).map(function (r) { return function (r, e) { var t = {}, n = e.width || 1, i = e.height || 1, u = e.deal_id || "", o = e.crid || ""; 0 != e.cpm && e.ad && (t = { requestId: r.bids[e.imp_id].bidId, cpm: e.cpm, width: n, height: i, netRevenue: !0, ad: e.ad, creativeId: o, dealId: u, currency: "USD", ttl: 300, tl_source: e.tl_source }); return t; }(t, r); }); }, getUserSyncs: function getUserSyncs(r, e, t, n) { var i = function (r) { if (!r) return; if (r.iframeEnabled) return "iframe"; if (r.pixelEnabled) return "image"; }(r); if (i) { var u = "https://eb2.3lift.com/sync?"; return "image" === i && (u = o.tryAppendQueryString(u, "px", 1), u = o.tryAppendQueryString(u, "src"https://news.google.com/,"prebid")), null !== c && (u = o.tryAppendQueryString(u, "gdpr", a), u = o.tryAppendQueryString(u, "cmp_cs", c)), n && (u = o.tryAppendQueryString(u, "us_privacy", n)), [{ type: i, url: u }]; } } }; function f(r, e, t, n) { return r.map((o = e, function (r) { return r && r.userId && r.userId[o]; })).filter(function (r) { return !!r; }).map((i = t, u = n, function (r) { return { source: i, uids: [{ id: r, ext: { rtiPartner: u } }] }; })); var i, u, o; } function l(r) { return 2 === r.length && "number" == typeof r[0] && "number" == typeof r[1]; } Object(i.registerBidder)(s); } }, [761]); pbjsChunk([75], { 763: function _(e, r, t) { e.exports = t(764); }, 764: function _(e, r, t) { "use strict"; Object.defineProperty(r, "__esModule", { value: !0 }), t.d(r, "spec", function () { return v; }); var m = t(0), s = t(1), o = t(10), c = t(2), f = "Bid from response has no auid parameter - ", l = "Bid from response has no adm parameter - ", p = "Array of bid objects is empty", g = "Can't find in requested bids the bid with auid - ", u = "Seatbid array from response has empty item", y = "Response is empty", b = "Response has empty seatbid array", h = "Seatbid from response has no array of bid objects - ", v = { code: "trustx", supportedMediaTypes: [c.b, c.d], isBidRequestValid: function isBidRequestValid(e) { return !!e.params.uid; }, buildRequests: function buildRequests(e, r) { var a, o, p = [], u = {}, c = {}, f = {}, l = "net"; (e || []).forEach(function (e) { "gross" === e.params.priceType && (l = "gross"), o = e.bidderRequestId; var r = e.params.uid, t = e.adUnitCode; p.push(r); var s, n = m.parseSizesInput(e.sizes); a || m.isEmpty(e.params.keywords) || (0 < (s = m.transformBidderParamKeywords(e.params.keywords)).length && s.forEach(E), a = s), c[r] || (c[r] = {}); var d = c[r]; d adUnitCode: t, bids: [e], parents: [] }; var i = d n.forEach(function (e) { f[e] = !0, u[r] || (u[r] = {}), u[r][e] ? u[r][e].push(i) : u[r][e] = [i], i.parents.push({ parent: u[r], key: e, uid: r }); }); }); var t = { pt: l, auids: p.join(","), sizes: m.getKeys(f).join(","), r: o, wrapperType: "Prebid_js", wrapperVersion: "3.23.0" }; return a && (t.keywords = JSON.stringify(a)), r && (r.refererInfo && r.refererInfo.referer && (t.u = r.refererInfo.referer), r.timeout && (t.wtimeout = r.timeout), r.gdprConsent && (r.gdprConsent.consentString && (t.gdpr_consent = r.gdprConsent.consentString), t.gdpr_applies = "boolean" == typeof r.gdprConsent.gdprApplies ? Number(r.gdprConsent.gdprApplies) : 1), r.uspConsent && (t.us_privacy = r.uspConsent)), { method: "GET", url: "https://sofia.trustx.org/hb", data: m.parseQueryStringParameters bidsMap: u }; }, interpretResponse: function interpretResponse(e, r, t) { var s = 2 < arguments.length && void 0 !== t ? t : o.a; e = e && e.body; var n, d = [], i = r.bidsMap, a = r.data.pt; return e ? e.seatbid && !e.seatbid.length && (n = b) : n = y, !n && e.seatbid && e.seatbid.forEach(function (e) { !function (e, d, r, t, s) { if (!e) return; var n; e.auid || (n = f + JSON.stringify(e)); { var i, a, o, p, u; e.adm ? (i = d[e.auid]) ? (a = "".concat(e.w, "x").concat(e.h), i[a] && (o = i[a][0], p = o.bids.shift(), u = { requestId: p.bidId, bidderCode: v.code, cpm: e.price, width: e.w, height: e.h, creativeId: e.auid, currency: "USD", netRevenue: "gross" !== r, ttl: 360, dealId: e.dealid }, "video" === e.content_type ? (u.vastXml = e.adm, u.mediaType = c.d, u.adResponse = { content: u.vastXml }, p.renderer || p.mediaTypes && p.mediaTypes.video && "outstream" !== p.mediaTypes.video.context || (u.renderer = function (e, r) { var t = r.install({ id: e.id, url: e.url, loaded: !1 }); try { t.setRender(w); } catch (e) { m.logWarn("Prebid Error calling setRender on renderer", e); } return t; }({ id: p.bidId, url: "https://acdn.adnxs.com/video/outstream/ANOutstreamVideo.js" }, s))) : (u.ad = e.adm, u.mediaType = c.b), t.push(u), o.bids.length || o.parents.forEach(function (e) { var r = e.parent, t = e.key, s = e.uid, n = r -1 < n && r }))) : n = g + e.auid : n = l + JSON.stringify(e); } n && m.logError(n); }(function (e) { e ? e.bid ? e.bid[0] || m.logError(p) : m.logError(h + JSON.stringify(e)) : m.logError(u); return e && e.bid && e.bid[0]; }(e), i, a, d, s); }), n && m.logError(n), d; }, getUserSyncs: function getUserSyncs(e) { if (e.pixelEnabled) return [{ type: "image", url: "https://sofia.trustx.org/push_sync" }]; } }; function E(e) { var r; r = e.value, m.isArray(r) && 0 < r.length && "" === e.value[0] && delete e.value; } function w(e) { e.renderer.push(function () { window.ANOutstreamVideo.renderAd({ targetId: e.adUnitCode, adResponse: e.adResponse }); }); } Object(s.registerBidder)(v); } }, [763]); pbjs.processQueue(); }, {}]; window.modules["via.legacy"] = [function(require,module,exports){"use strict"; DS.service("via", function () { "use strict"; // remove `via` from url, to be used after amplitude logs it to prevent users from sharing such urls function removeFromLocation() { var url = new URL(location.href); url.searchParams.delete("via"); history.replaceState(null, "", url.toString()); } // and add `via` param to any outbound links function addViaToUrl(href, via) { if (!href || href.substr(0, 1) === "#") { return href; // don't add to jumps on the current page, e.g. "Skip to main content" } var url = new URL(href); var apexDomain = new URL(location.href).hostname.split(".").slice(-2).join("."); if (url.hostname.indexOf(apexDomain) === -1) { return href; // don't add it to external links } url.searchParams.set("via", via); return url.toString(); } // keys correspond to "page_types" in editable_components.yml var PREFIXES = { article: "article", homepage: "homepage", "vertical front": "section", "rubric front": "rubric" }; var pageType; function setPageType(amplitudePageType) { pageType = PREFIXES[amplitudePageType]; } var DELIMITER = "_"; function concatVia(node, via) { var tag = node.dataset && node.dataset.via; if (tag) { via = (via.length ? tag + DELIMITER : tag) + via; } return via; } function addToClickedLinks() { document.documentElement.addEventListener("click", function (e) { var a; var via = ""; // detect link nodes and collect via directives to append to the href var node = e.target; // the element where this event originated may have been removed from the dom, e.g. in the case of the OIL CMP which disappears after you interact with it while (node && node !== e.currentTarget) { if (node.tagName === "A") { a = node; } via = concatVia(node, via); node = node.parentNode; } if (a && via) { if (pageType) { via = pageType + DELIMITER + via; } a.href = addViaToUrl(a.href, via); } }); } function addToSubmittedForms() { document.documentElement.addEventListener("submit", function (e) { var form = e.target; // collect via directives var via = ""; var node = e.target; while (node !== e.currentTarget) { via = concatVia(node, via); node = node.parentNode; } if (via) { if (pageType) { via = pageType + DELIMITER + via; } // dynamically create a hidden input for the form url var input = document.createElement("input"); input.type = "hidden"; input.name = "via"; input.value = via; form.appendChild(input); } }); } // start listening only once, when first injected addToClickedLinks(); addToSubmittedForms(); return { setPageType: setPageType, removeFromLocation: removeFromLocation }; }); }, {}]; window.modules["visibility.legacy"] =[function(require,module,exports){"use strict"; DS.service("$visibility",["$document"https://news.google.com/,"$window"https://news.google.com/,"_throttle"https://news.google.com/,"Eventify", function ($document, $window, _throttle, Eventify) { var list = [], Visible, VisibleEvent; /** * @param {number} a * @param {number} b * @returns {*} * @see http://jsperf.com/math-min-vs-if-condition-vs/8 */ function min(a, b) { return a < b ? a : b; } /** * @param {number} a * @param {number} b * @returns {*} * @see http://jsperf.com/math-min-vs-if-condition-vs/8 */ function max(a, b) { return a > b ? a : b;
}
/**
* Fast loop through watched elements
*/

function onScroll() {
list.forEach(updateVisibility);
}
/**
* updates seen property
* @param {Visble} item
* @param {{}} evt
* @fires Visible#shown
* @fires Visible#hidden
*/

function updateSeen(item, evt) {
var px = evt.visiblePx,
percent = evt.visiblePercent; // if some pixels are visible and we’re greater/equal to threshold

if (px && percent >= item.shownThreshold && !item.seen) {
item.seen = true;
setTimeout(function () {
item.trigger(“shown”, new VisibleEvent(“shown”, evt));
}, 15); // if no pixels or percent is less than threshold
} else if ((!px || percent < item.hiddenThreshold) && item.seen) { item.seen = false; setTimeout(function () { item.trigger("hidden", new VisibleEvent("hidden", evt)); }, 15); } } /** * sets preload property * @param {Visible} item * @param {{}} evt * @param {Number} innerHeight * @fires Visible#preload */ function updatePreload(item, evt, innerHeight) { if (!item.preload && item.preloadThreshhold && shouldBePreloaded(evt.target, evt.rect, item.preloadThreshhold, innerHeight)) { item.preload = true; setTimeout(function () { item.trigger("preload", new VisibleEvent("preload", evt)); }, 15); } } /** * Trigger events * @param {Visible} item */ function updateVisibility(item) { var rect = item.el.getBoundingClientRect(), innerHeight = $window.innerHeight || $document.documentElement.clientHeight, px = getVerticallyVisiblePixels(rect, innerHeight), percent = px / (rect.height || innerHeight), evt = { target: item.el, rect: rect, visiblePx: px, visiblePercent: percent }; updateSeen(item, evt); updatePreload(item, evt, innerHeight); } /** * Return normalized viewport height * @return {number} */ function getViewportHeight() { return $window.innerHeight || $document.documentElement.clientHeight || $document.body.clientHeight; } /** * Return normalized viewport width * @return {number} */ function getViewportWidth() { return $window.innerWidth || $document.documentElement.clientWidth || $document.body.clientWidth; } /** * make sure an element isn't hidden by styles or etc * @param {Element} el * @return {Boolean} */ function isElementNotHidden(el) { return el && el.offsetParent !== null && !el.getAttribute("hidden") && getComputedStyle(el).display !== "none" && getComputedStyle(el).visibility !== "hidden"; } /** * Apparently the fastest way... * @param {Element} el * @returns {boolean} * @example if (!$visibility.isElementInViewport(el)) { ... } */ function isElementInViewport(el) { var rect = el.getBoundingClientRect(); return rect.top >= 0 && rect.left >= 0 && rect.bottom <= ($window.innerHeight || $document.documentElement.clientHeight) && rect.right <= ($window.innerWidth || $document.documentElement.clientWidth); } /** * @param {Element} el * @param {ClientRect} rect * @param {Number} preloadThreshhold * @param {Number} innerHeight * @return {Boolean} */ function shouldBePreloaded(el, rect, preloadThreshhold, innerHeight) { return rect.top <= innerHeight + preloadThreshhold && isElementNotHidden(el); } /** * Create a one-dimensional spacial hash of x * @param {number} x * @param {number} stepSize * @param {number} optimalK * @param {number} base * @return {number} */ function getLinearSpacialHash(x, stepSize, optimalK, base) { var index = Math.floor(x / (stepSize || 1)), remainder = x % stepSize, result = index.toString(base); if (optimalK > 1) {
result += getLinearSpacialHash(remainder, Math.floor(stepSize / base), optimalK – 1, base);
}

return result;
}
/**
* @param {ClientRect} rect
* @param {number} innerHeight
* @returns {number}
*/

function getVerticallyVisiblePixels(rect, innerHeight) {
return min(innerHeight, max(rect.bottom, 0)) – min(max(rect.top, 0), innerHeight);
}
/**
* Get offset of element relative to entire page
*
* @param {Element} el
* @returns {{left: number, top: number}}
* @see http://jsperf.com/offset-vs-getboundingclientrect/7
*/

function getPageOffset(el) {
var offsetLeft = el.offsetLeft,
offsetTop = el.offsetTop;

while (el = el.offsetParent) {
offsetLeft += el.offsetLeft;
offsetTop += el.offsetTop;
}

return {
left: offsetLeft,
top: offsetTop
};
}
/**
* Create a new Visible class to observe when elements enter and leave the viewport
*
* Call destroy function to stop listening (this is until we have better support for watching for Node Removal)
* @param {Element} el
* @param {{shownThreshold: number, hiddenThreshold: number}} [options] * @class
* @example this.visible = new $visibility.Visible(el);
*/

Visible = function Visible(el, options) {
options = options || {};
this.el = el;
this.seen = false;
this.preload = false;
this.preloadThreshhold = options && options.preloadThreshhold || 0;
this.shownThreshold = options && options.shownThreshold || 0;
this.hiddenThreshold = options && min(options.shownThreshold, options.hiddenThreshold) || 0;
list.push(this);
updateVisibility(this); // set immediately to visible or not
};

Visible.prototype = {
/**
* Stop triggering.
*/
destroy: function destroy() {
// remove from list
list.splice(list.indexOf(this), 1);
}
/**
* @name Visible#on
* @function
* @param {‘shown’|’hidden’} e EventName
* @param {function} cb Callback
*/

/**
* @name Visible#trigger
* @function
* @param {‘shown’|’hidden’} e
* @param {{}}
*/

};
Eventify.enable(Visible.prototype);

VisibleEvent = function VisibleEvent(type, options) {
var _this = this;

this.type = type;
Object.keys(options).forEach(function (key) {
_this[key] = options[key];
});
}; // listen for scroll events (throttled)

$document.addEventListener(“scroll”, _throttle(onScroll, 200)); // public

this.getPageOffset = getPageOffset;
this.getLinearSpacialHash = getLinearSpacialHash;
this.getVerticallyVisiblePixels = getVerticallyVisiblePixels;
this.getViewportHeight = getViewportHeight;
this.getViewportWidth = getViewportWidth;
this.isElementNotHidden = isElementNotHidden;
this.isElementInViewport = isElementInViewport;
this.Visible = Visible;
}]);
}, {}];
require=(function e(t,n,r){function s(o,u){if(!n[o]){if(!t[o]){var a=typeof require==”function”&&require;if(!u&&a)return a(o,!0);if(i)return i(o,!0);var f=new Error(“Cannot find module ‘”+o+”‘”);throw f.code=”MODULE_NOT_FOUND”,f}var l=n[o]={exports:{}};t[o][0].call(l.exports,function(e){var n=t[o][1][e];return s(n?n:e)},l,l.exports,e,t,n,r)}return n[o].exports}var i=typeof require==”function”&&require;for(var o=0;o


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